Friday, May 22, 2020

Memory Does Not Work Like A Video Camera - 975 Words

Memory does not work like a video camera, smoothly recording every detail. Instead, memory is more of a constructive process. We remember the details that we find most important and relevant. Due to the reconstructive nature of memory, the assimilation of old and new information has the ability to cause vulnerable memories to become distorted. This is also known as the misinformation effect (Loftus, 1997). It is not uncommon for individuals to fill in memory gaps with what they assume they must have experienced. We not only distort memories for events that we have observed, but, we may also have false memories for events that never occurred at all. False memories are â€Å"often created by combing actual memories with suggestions received from†¦show more content†¦In the first follow-up interview, roughly eighteen percent remembered the false event and in the second follow-up, twenty-five percent remembered the false event (Hyman, Husband, Billing 1995). As this study indi cates, memories are more susceptible to modification when the passage of time allows the original memory to fade. Being lost, however, is not the same as being abused. Another crucial component involved in the formation of false memories is the imagination inflation. Loftus (1997) found that the more often an individual imagined an unperformed action, the more likely they were to later on remember having performed it. While these studies do not fully exemplify the harmful reality of false memories, they take a step towards understanding how these false memories might occur in real-world settings. As Loftus (1997) discusses, it is only natural to wonder whether or not this research is applicable to real-world situations such as being interrogated by law officers or in psychotherapy. What researchers have learned, and can apply to this practical problem is that there are social demands on individuals to remember and come up with detailed memories. Not only that, but memory construction through suggestion and imagining events has been shown to be explicitly encouraged when people are having trouble remembering events (Loftus, 1997). One of the reasons it is important for us to learn about child developmentShow MoreRelatedHardware And Software For Graphics Studio1499 Words   |  6 PagesGraphics cards with more power like this one allows for a better display on the monitor and for the resolution and FPS to be higher. The higher both of these means the better the picture will look on the screen. Things to look for The capability in whether or not it can run HD. The size of the graphics cards own memory Ram Dell PowerEdge R710 8GB Module Description This is the working memory of the computer. A larger RAM means that the computer can do more work and have a better system performanceRead MoreEssay On Smart Homes Smart1611 Words   |  7 Pageso you know what makes smart homes smart? Processing. Smart cameras can only recognize your face after they’ve processed an image; voice-controlled devices can only understand you after they’ve processed a sound, and your smart home hub can only tell what’s going on in your house after it’s processed the input from your sensors. As simple as it may sound, processing is critical, and the â€Å"process† takes memory, power, and software. And when it comes to the smart home, the question is – should devicesRead More Progression of Photography Essay1691 Words   |  7 Pageswithin a fraction of a second (Belles 92). Today, photography has become a great means of communication and a form of visual expression that touches human life in many ways. For example, photography has become popular as a means of crystallizing memories. The billions of photographs taken today are snapshots or casual records to document personal events such as vacations, birthdays, and weddings. The first permanent photograph (later accidentally destroyed) was an image produced in 1826 by theRead MoreHow Technology Can Help Us Remember Things1137 Words   |  5 Pagesit to remind us to do something, like call our parents, when our next doctor’s appointment is, when our family member’s birthday is and even navigate where we want to go if we are driving. But now it is as if technology is telling us to relax and let the computers do our work of memorizing. Undoubtedly, technology is beneficial to our memories as, but there is a side that can be detrimental as well. Recently, in class we talked about whether or not pictures, videos or anything else technology-wiseRead MoreThe Effects Of Digital On The Digital Age1332 Words   |  6 Pagessomething that everyone does. Digital cameras and video recorders are no longer individual devices that are bought separately; they can be bought as two devices in one or be found readily available in any smartphone. With advanced technology in the digital age, photographs and videos can be used to assist a person in reliving/remembering that specific moment they are viewing. Jose van Dijck’s book, Mediated Memories in the Digital Age, weaves together the brain function of memory and technology to formRead MorePolaroid Market Analysis1281 Words   |  6 Pagesrapidly expanding to include various models of individual product. Some digital-imaging include, digital camera where photos can be stored on a hard disk and process and retrieve through computers and software, the film camera and scanner which c omprise of a magnetic disk that is use to print photos from a computer. There is also the video camera and frame grabber that works with a compact flash, memory stick and magnetic diskette which allows photos to be transmitted via internet, in addition, this productRead MoreCase Analysis : Computer Hardware, Software Communications And Peripheral Components Of The Personal Computer1390 Words   |  6 Pagescomputer hardware, software communications and peripheral components of the personal computer. Friend number one likes to play video games. Friend number one is also a student. Friend number two wants to purchase a computer for his home office. Friend number two works as a travel agent from home. Furthermore, Friend number three would like a notebook computer that she can use for school work. She is studying to be a graphic designer and is currently enrolled in a graphic design program. All of theseRead MoreSusan Sontag s View On Self Esteem1445 Words   |  6 PagesWhen we snap a picture, the goal is to either share what we are experiencing or to preserve a memory. Many take pictures of beautiful scenarios or moments without actually enjoying them due to being so focused on taking the perfect picture. Others take pictures in order to cope with low self-esteem. No matter what the motive is behind a picture , good or bad, they all have one thing in common-- they tell a story. Susan Sontag argues that taking pictures is used in a way to defend against anxietyRead MoreGraphical Images Essay955 Words   |  4 Pagesthat the user needs and that the monitor can run. With a graphics card, a user would be able to produce the best graphics they can and make sure that it works and can be viewed correctly. The graphics card uses digital information from the operating system and creates a signal what the display can understand. The signal usually goes through the video cable to the monitor. This is what it uses to create the picture. The Higher priced graphics card m ay be able to produce a higher resolution and colorRead MoreUnit 30 Digital Graphics : P1 Describe Software And Hardware984 Words   |  4 PagesUnit 30 Digital Graphics P1 Describe software and hardware to create and edit graphic images. In this world wherever your eyes can reach you will see pictures, videos and other type of graphics images. Images are used in everything from advertising in television and to promote your product in website so it is important to have better graphic images so it is clear and is not blurry and to make sure the graphic image is at its best there are many software and hardware tools we can use to make the

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Should Euthanasia Be Practiced - 1622 Words

Euthanasia means the action of taking the life of another person at their own request. It is often referred to as â€Å"life-terminating treatment†. This can either be passive or active. Passive euthanasia allows one to die by holding back or withdrawing life supporting means. Active euthanasia is often referred to as â€Å"mercy killing†. This is the deliberate killing of a patient with their voluntary consent, without their consent when impossible, or without their consent but not sought. Euthanasia should be practiced because, it reduces the amount of tragically self-inflicted suicides, it gives terminally ill patients a painless death, and their vital organs can be saved and used to save other patients. In November of 1994, Oregon voters approved Euthanasia by a vote of fifty one percent to forty nine percent, making Oregon the first state to legalize physician-assisted suicide. The OODA or Oregon Dignity Act, an adult resident of Oregon who is terminally ill, may r equest a prescription drug in a lethal dose to end his or her life. The patient must be examined by two physicians, and the patient has to request the prescription in writing and be witnessed by two persons who are neither caregivers or related to the patient. The patient must take the medication by his or herself. In November of 1997, Oregon voters voted to defeat the law. After this occurred, the DEA warned doctors in Oregon that they could have their medical licences revoked or be arrested for prescribing lethalShow MoreRelatedEssay on Euthanasia a Topic Surrounded by Controversies780 Words   |  4 Pages Euthanasia is a very controversial subject, due to the fact it’s a way of painless killing of a patient suffering from a debilitating disease that cannot be cured, or the patient is in a coma and has no way of coming out of it. In this case some societies consider it’s a good way of dying, as it is done to relieve pain and suffering. Some, especially most of rel igious individuals, consider this a form of a murder, which raises a question of morality. In this article, the author is discussing theRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?864 Words   |  4 Pagescontroversy over euthanasia. Because there is a sharp conflict on the issue, some countries accept mercy killing lawful while others do not. The main arguments about the issue are whether the deliberate intervention on one’s life to the end is morally right or wrong. Some say euthanasia should be legalized because it is the only way to relieve harsh pain and meet ‘real happiness’ for the patients who are not expected to maintain their lives more. They also argue that people should respect the patients’Read MoreDeath Of The United States Should Legalize Active Voluntary Euthanasia1200 Words   |  5 PagesThe democracy of the United States should legalize active voluntary euthanasia (AVE), active non-voluntary euthanasia (NVAE), and physician-assisted suicide/death (PAS/PAD), in cases where the patient has a terminal illness, unbearable pain, or are in a vegetative state with no chance of being revived. AVE is defined as â€Å"the intentional and painless ‘mercy driven’ termination of a consenting rational person’s life†¦Ã¢â‚¬  NVAE is conjugately defined as â€Å"the termination of an incompetent individual s existenceRead MoreEuthanasia Essay1533 Words   |  7 Pages Intentionally making someone die, rather than allowing that person to die naturally is the definition of euthanasia according to the International Anti-Euthanasia Task Force (Euthanasia: Answer to Frequently Asked Questions, 1). This definition, itself, does not sound very appealing. The practice of euthanasia in any shape or form should never be legalized in the United States and should be banned wherever it is presently legal. Whether it be the assisted suicides associated with quot;Doctor Deathquot;Read MoreEuthanasia Is A Painless, Quick, And Peaceful Death1569 Words   |  7 Pagesmisery. This is often thought of as an act of kindness towards your pet; you’re relieving it’s intense pain and suffering. Why is it acceptable to put a loved pet out of its misery, but frowned upon to help a human relieve their terminal pain? Euthanasia is a painless, quick, and peaceful death that can be medically provided to patients by doctors to help end the suffering that comes with a terminal disease. This option is currently illegal in the United States. All over the country, there areRead MoreResearching Physician Assisted Suicide801 Words   |  3 PagesEuthanasia Euthanasia, or physician assisted suicide, is an important and controversial topic in our society today, and (under the correct conditions) should both be considered legal and morally acceptable. In fact, throughout history euthanasia has been a debate in many countries, some areas accepting the practice, whereas others find it unacceptable. Many people and professionals continue to refer to the Hippocratic Oath, an vow stating the proper conduct for doctors, and its famous wordsRead MoreEuthanasia Discussion1441 Words   |  6 Pagesdecide when, where, and under what conditions a person is to die? This question inevitably brings up discussion of spirituality, beliefs, and legislation. Euthanasia is an idea that has been around for decades yet as we progress in technology and medical competency the discussion screams to be addressed formally by passing legislature. Euthanasia must be taken out of the hands of lawmakers and put into the hands of the thousands fatally ill patients trapped in their own bodies and/or minds. It isRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?1360 Words   |  6 PagesAbout 55% of terminally ill patients die in atrocious pain. Euthanasia is a practice that hasn’t been legalized in many places, and is usually performed by lethal injection. In the United States euthanasia is only legalized in Oregon, Washington, Montana, and certain areas of Texas. Some citizens feel that euthanasia should be legalized because they should have the sole right to their life. Others feel that God is the one that has the authority over a person’s life. There have been many cases whereRead MoreEuthanasia Should Not Be Legal1520 Words   |  7 Pages Euthanasia or commonly known as Physician-Assisted Suicide is defined as the painless killing of a patient who is suffering from an incurable and painful disease or is in an irreversible coma. It is an act that speeds up death. Some people consider euthanasia to be a mercy killing and others consid er it to be murder. This practice is illegal in most countries. In the United States, however, six states have legalized physician-assisted suicide even though most states, 44 to be more specific, haveRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legal? Essay1449 Words   |  6 Pages Euthanasia: The Right to Die Euthanasia is a concept that has been around for a very long time. It has been practiced since ancient Greece. We all have different opinions towards it; some of us might be for it and others against it. In most parts of the world Euthanasia is illegal. Many countries have denied the right to euthanasia, but is that fair and ethical? It is the painless killing of a patient’s agony from an incurable and painful disease. Euthanasia should be legal. Someone

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Motives for American Colonization Free Essays

The â€Å"discovery† of the New World by Christopher Columbus led to a new chapter in history that no one at the time could have anticipated. For many Europeans, it offered a better life than the one they were living, which led to the colonization of the Americas. Motives that fueled European colonization were that the New World offered religious freedom, a fresh start for those who were impoverished and in debt, and better opportunities to acquire large amounts of land and wealth. We will write a custom essay sample on Motives for American Colonization or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Protestant Reformation in the 16th century led to conflict between Catholics and Protestants who sought to reform the Catholic Church. At the start of the 17th century, Puritan Separatists became subject of harassment, which made many flee to the New World where they could establish Separatist communities away from any persecution. Christian missionaries also went to the Americas in search of new converts. They saw the indigenous people of the New World as savage and uneducated, taking it into their own and making it their duty to bring them into the Christian faith. Another motive for European colonization of the Americas was for a fresh start in a new land. England in the 17th century had little job opportunity and low wages, leaving many young men looking for work. Those who opted to go to the New World were given a chance to clear their debts along with a chance at life in the colonies, in exchange for a set amount of labor as an indentured servant. These people were promised their freedom , small parts of land, tools to farm, and clothes once their time as indentured servants was up. To the thousands of jobless, bachelors in England, this was an offer to sweet to resist. Many other Europeans in search of economic opportunity made the long trip to the Americas, not to become indentured servants escaping their debts, but rather to make their fortunes in the fertile soils of the colonies. This was especially true in the Caribbean, and in the southern region of the English colonies, where sugar and tobacco could be grown in abundance. These were commodities that went into high demand in Europe, making plantation owners fabulously wealthy. Those who had the most money also held the most influence in politics around the colonies. With this in mind, along with the relatively low prices to acquire vast amounts of land, middle and upper-class Europeans alike found the New World to be very attractive. There were many different motives for Europeans to leave their lives behind and come to the America. One of these was the promise of religious freedom, being able to practice a faith and establish religious communities without fear of persecution, or to seek coverts to the Christian faith. Other motives were for economic opportunity, whether it was to start over in the New World without debt, or to establish oneself as a successful plantation owner. These and countless other reasons drove thousands of European men and women to the Americas. How to cite Motives for American Colonization, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Macbeth Story Essays - Characters In Macbeth, English-language Films

Macbeth Story MacBeth is the story of a great warrior who is tempted by evil and allows his ambition to corrupt his strength. MacBeth himself begins the story as being the greatest general in all of Scotland, but by the end is merely a shadow of his past self as he is the detested tyrant who is slain by Macduff. Although MacBeth is physically strong in the beginning of the story, he turns out to be emotionally weak. MacBeth's physical strength is not just encompassed by his might, but also by his keen sense on the battlefield and his devotion to the people around him. MacBeth begins the story by killing a traitor himself, the Thane of Cawdor, Macdonwald, through seemingly impossible odds. Because of this act, King Duncan proclaims MacBeth the new Thane of Cawdor. It is generally accepted at this point in the story that MacBeth is the most skilled warrior in all of Scotland, and is recognized as such by all characters. His strength was the one thing that allowed him his rise to power, but it was that rise to power that eventually sapped him of all his strength. MacBeth's strengths soon became his weaknesses, as his ruthlessness when it came to whom he perceived to be his enemies came back to him as Macduff slew him towards the end of the play. MacBeth was also easily duped, as his wife was able to convince him to kill the King, even though MacBeth had already decided to not kill Duncan. MacBeth's keen mind was brought down by the guilt he felt over killing Duncan, and this guilt was compounded when he ordered the killing of his best friend, Banquo. This became highly evident as he began seeing visions of the bloody daggers he used to kill Duncan and the vision of Banquo's ghost at his feast. MacBeth also becomes disillusioned with his marriage as the story moves on. He referred to his wife as "my dearest partner of greatness" (1.5.11) in the beginning, yet when he is informed of his wife's passing, he says, "She should have died hereafter. There would have been more time for such a word." (5.5.20) showing his emotional instability, something that he was always able to keep in check. MacBeth's character changes from a physically, mentally, and skillfully strong General of the Scottish army to a tyrannical, despised and defeated King of Scotland. MacBeth as a play captures the complete and utter fall from grace of a man not able to deal with the temptations of evil.

Friday, March 20, 2020

United Kingdom and the Opt Out from the European Monetary and Economic Union Was this a Good Decision for British Business

United Kingdom and the Opt Out from the European Monetary and Economic Union Was this a Good Decision for British Business Introduction The United Kingdom opted out of the European Union Monetary and Economic Union (herein referred to as EMU) for several reasons, specifically what came to be referred to as the five economic tests. In retrospect, the â€Å"opt out† was not a good decision for the British business given the fact that businesses in this country effectively became outsiders to the Eurozone, and will be affected by policies made by this union just like any other foreign country.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on United Kingdom and the â€Å"Opt Out† from the European Monetary and Economic Union: Was this a Good Decision for British Business? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Verdun (1999) provides a working conceptualisation of the term monetary union. This is the definition that will be adopted throughout this essay. According to this author, a monetary union can be viewed as an agreement between several nations t o use a common currency amongst themselves (Verdun 1999: Stauffer n.d). The nations may go as far as establishing a single central bank and other centralised agencies that are tasked with the role of regulating the financial aspects of the nations. The European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is such an example of a monetary union as defined by Verdun (1999). According to Adiong (2008), this union was to be implemented in three stages over a period of several years. Adiong (2008) refers to these steps as discrete but evolutionary, meaning that a step builds on its predecessor. It is not all European Union nations that joined the EMU and this can be attributed to several reasons. There are those, specifically Greece and Sweden, that failed to meet some of the criteria put down to qualify member states to be part of the monetary union. Others, like the United Kingdom, negotiated for what Willis (2010) refer to as opt outs. This means that these nations are exempted from the provisio ns and regulations of the monetary union, and they can join whenever they feel like, provided of course they meet all the necessary conditions. This essay is going to look at the case of United Kingdom’s opt out from the European Monetary and Economic Union. The author is going to look at the reasons why this country opted out this union among other issues. The author will especially critically appraise whether the decision to opt out was the best or not for British businesses. The European Economic and Monetary Union: Overview Before looking at the reasons why the United Kingdom opted out of the monetary union and analysis of the impacts of this decision to the British business, it is important to provide a brief overview of this union. According to Stauffer (n.d), the European Economic and Monetary Union’s idea can be traced back to the year 1979.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the year that the European Council ratified the decision to adopt the European Monetary System [herein referred to as the EMS] (Stauffer n.d). This system was mostly concerned with the regulation of the union’s currency exchange rates. However, the European monetary and economic union was not to be formed until the year 1992. This was the year that saw the signing of the famous Maastricht Treaty, the treaty that led to the founding of the European Union (Stauffer n.d). In this treaty, provisions, referred to as the convergence criteria (Adiong 2008), that were to be met by each of the European union member states before they could be allowed to join thee monetary and economic union. The European economic and monetary union was to be set up in three steps, a process that was recommended by the findings of the Delors Report (Bojden 2010). This was the report of a commission that was structured by thee European council to look into stag es that can be followed in forming and adopting a monetary union for the European Union member states. The figure below depicts these steps and the provisions of each of them: Figure 1: The Three Stages to the Adoption Economic and Monetary Union Source: European Central Bank 2010-11-27 The first stage of the adoption was initiated on July 1st, 1990, and it provided for the elimination of virtually all restrictions imposed on the movement of capital from one European Union state to the other (Cash and Jamieson 2004). The second stage of the adoption saw the structuring and adoption of the European Monetary Institute (herein referred to as EMI) and the European Central Bank [herein referred to as ECB] (European Central Bank 2010).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on United Kingdom and the â€Å"Opt Out† from the European Monetary and Economic Union: Was this a Good Decision for British Business? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Le arn More This second stage commenced in the year 1994. The third stage begun on January 1999 (European Central Bank 2010: Blackstone, Lauricella and Shah 2010). This stage is still continuing, and it aims at fixing a common exchange rate for all the members of the monetary union. The United Kingdom has remained in stage two of the adoption of the monetary union. It has failed to move with the other members to the third and final stage of the EMU that would have seen the abolishment of the sterling pound and replacement of the same with the euro. This move has been informed by several factors, ranging from political, economical to social considerations. The United Kingdom and the European Economic and Monetary Union: Why the Opt Out? Overview The United Kingdom has been cynically referred to in many quarters as the master opt outs. This is given the fact that her majesty’s government has an affinity to negotiate for exemptions from major treaties, the provisions of whi ch would have naturally affected the nation. The latest in these escapades is the country’s total â€Å"opt out† from the provisions of the Justice and Home Affairs policy region (Willis 2010). Her Majesty’s negotiators were able to secure this preferential treatment during the negotiations that went into the Lisbon Treaty (Willis 2010: Blackstone et al 2010). It was thus not entirely surprising when the United Kingdom negotiated for opt out from the European Economic and Monetary Union in the year 1992. The provisions of this opt out were that this country will be exempted from the participation in the third stage of the adoption. Addressing the issue of the country’s participation in the third stage of adoption, the government was of the view that this will depend on several factors. This included the achievement of five economic tests as formulated by the then Labour Party Chancellor and later Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Gordon Brown (Bojden 2010). When the five tests are met, a referendum will be held, seeking the approval of the British citizenry before the joining of the union. Why the Opt Out? As earlier indicated, several obstacles stood in the way of the adoption of a single currency by the United Kingdom’s government. These included economic, political and social obstacles (Cash and Jamieson 2004).Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic Barriers One of the major economic reason informing the refusal to join the economic union is the fact that the economy of this country is â€Å"out of synch† (Willis 2010 p4) with the others in the European continent. This is especially so considering the fact that the sterling pound, the United Kingdom’s currency, has performed relatively well as compared to other currencies in the region. It is also noted that the unemployment rate, economic growth rate ad other aspects of the United Kingdom’s economy are not at par with the rest of the region’s (Bojden 2010). It is also important to note that, at the time the United Kingdom negotiators worked out the opt out provisions, the degree of trade interdependence that the United Kingdom had with the rest of the economies making up the European union was quiet low (Willis 2010). This is unlike in the case of today, where sixty percent of the United Kingdom’s foreign trade is made up of trade be tween this country and the European Union economies (Willis 2010). Political and Social Barriers It is important to note that, despite being an economically oriented treaty, a lot of political and social overtones are discernible in the European Economic and Monetary Union. The European Monetary Economic and Monetary Union and the European Union in extension have been very unpopular with the British public. Successive opinion polls and surveys have consistently indicated that the United Kingdom citizens do not support the idea of the country embarking on the third stage of adoption. This realisation might have informed the decisions of the negotiators credited with the EMU opt out. For example, in the year 2005, 57 percent of the public polled opposed the country’s adoption of the euro (Bojden 2010). This opposition has been consistent over the years, with 59 percent opposing in 2008 and 64 percent in 2009 (Blackstone et al 2010). Majority of those opposing the adoption of th e euro and the elimination of the sterling pound are of the view that their opinion is not only economically motivated, but also social to a large extent. They are of the view that if the country adopts the single currency policy, it will lose its identity in the process (Blackstone et al 2010). This is given the fact that majority of the citizens in this country have a strong attachment to the sterling pound, and have come to regard it as part of their national heritage. These are some of the social considerations that have ensured that the United Kingdom remains an â€Å"opt out† as far as the European economic and monetary union are concerned. Politicians- eager to appease the populace and win votes necessary to keep them in power- have ensured that the country hangs onto the sterling pound, adhering to the provisions of the â€Å"opt out† clause. This line of thought is significant given the fact that Gordon Brown, who was the chancellor who formulated the five eco nomic tests, rose up the political ladder to become the country’s prime minister (Willis 2010). As the incumbent of this position, Gordon Brown has ensured that the country remains an â€Å"opt out† case, giving this phenomenon one of its most obvious political overtones. These economic, political and social barriers are inexplicably interlinked with the five economic tests that Gordon Brown formulated. Following is an analysis of these tests: The Five Economic Tests The following are the five economic tests for the United Kingdom: Convergence of business cycles Economic flexibility Improvement of foreign and domestic investment Improvement of United Kingdom’s financial services Positive effects on growth, stability and employment A detailed analysis follows: Convergence of Business Cycles According to this test, business cycles in this country have to be compatible with those in other economies in the European Union region (Adiong 2008). Several indicators for this test were identified, and it is the achievement of these indicators that will determine whether the test itself is achieved or not. These include inflation and interest rates, output differences between the economies and currency exchange rates (Adiong 2008). According to this test, the inflation rate had to be less than 1.5 percent of higher term (Adiong 2008). This is when compared to the mean of the three lowest inflation rates, according to this test (Adiong 2008). As far as the interest rate is concerned, it had to be less than or equal to two percent above the three lowest such rates that have been recorded (Adiong 2008). The deficit of the government’s financial estimates, according to this test, should not be above 3 percent of the gross domestic product (Adiong 2008). The debt of the government should also not exceed sixty percent of the gross domestic product (Adiong 2008). Flexibility of the Economy The second test provides that the economy of this coun try, before the adoption of the single currency, should be resilient enough to ensure that the local economy can absorb any fluctuations in the euro economy (Adiong 2008). For example, the labour market in the United Kingdom must be flexible enough to cushion the economy against adverse developments in the euro economy. Foreign and Domestic Investment If the United Kingdom was to take part in the single currency economy, the third test that must be met provides that there must be proof that this participation will improve investment (Adiong 2008). For example, there must be proof that in the long term, the number of local and foreign investors in the United Kingdom economy will increase, as well as the increase in the number of United Kingdom investors able to expand their wings to other economies outside the border of this country. This means that the exchange rates, the restrictions and such other provisions of the single currency must be friendly to investors. Financial Servic es According to this fourth test, the competitive advantage of the country’s financial services sector must be enhanced by the adoption of the single currency economy (Adiong 2008). This is especially so considering the fact that the United Kingdom’s financial services market is one of the most competitive ones in the world, and as such, the government will not adopt policies that threaten this position. Growth and Stability Gordon Brown and his advisors were of the view that the integration of the United Kingdom in the single currency economy must impact positively on the employment and growth rates of the country (Adiong 2008). This improvement can be gauged by the effects that the euro zone will have on this country’s foreign trade and economic stability. A review carried out in the year 2007 found that only one of the tests has been met fully (Bojden 2010). This is the first one, the one on convergence of business cycles. This means that this country is n ot ready to adopt the single currency economy in the near future. This state of affairs is not good at all to the business in the United Kingdom. This is given the fact that businesses in this country stands to lose a lot if they remain outside the euro zone, despite the public’s opposition of this kind of integration. The Opt Out Bad for Business The businesses in this country are losing from the adoption of this decision by the country’s political class keen on appeasing the emotions of the public. For example, the businesses are losing as far as exchange rates are concerned. This country, as earlier stated in this paper, imports and exports a lot within the euro zone as compared to other economies in the world (Willis 2010). This means that the business people in this country have to incur the extra costs of exchange rates, a cost that they could have avoided if the country was operating on the euro currency (Willis 2010). The businesses in this country interact hea vily with the euro economies. However, despite these interactions and interdependency, British business is treated as foreigners or outsiders in the euro zone (Blackstone et al 2010). This means that they are affected like any other outsider by the economic decisions that are ratified and adopted by the economies party to the monetary union. There are arguments within the circles of those proposing the adoption of a single economy, arguments to the effect that should the EMU economy succeed, this will sound a death knell to the United Kingdom businesses’ competitive advantage (Bojden 2010). This is given the fact that competitive advantage brought about by the success of this monetary union translates into losing of business for economies outside the union, Britain included. Conclusion There are those who argue that, by opting of the EMU treaty, the United Kingdom made the right decision which was the best for its businesses. They argue that, given the foreign nature of this country in relation to the EMU, United Kingdom businesses will not suffer negatively from instabilities within the union. This is for example the fluctuations and weakening of the euro against major currencies such as the US dollar, fluctuations that may affect British businesses negatively. A lot of political friction, according to the views of these conservatives, is inevitable in the process of the United Kingdom’s adoption of the euro. This includes public outrage within the United Kingdom and political misunderstandings with other nations. All of this can be avoided by sticking to the â€Å"opt out† clause. However, objective analysis of the situation reveals that the British business stands to gain more from the adoption of the euro economy. The public opposition to this is motivated by irrational fears of the unknown together with unrealistic and emotional attachments to the sterling pound. References Adiong, N. 2008. United Kingdom’s challenges in the Eu ropean Monetary and Economic Union (EMU). New York: Free Press. Blackstone, B., Lauricella, T., and Shah, N. 2010. Global markets shudder: Doubts about U.S. economy and a debt crunch in Europe jolt hopes for a recovery. The Wall Street Journal, February 2010. Bojden, K. 2010. The United Kingdom-does it belong in the EU? Wall Street Journal, March 2010. Cash, B., and Jamieson, B. 2004. The strangulation of Britain British business: Europe in our daily lives. Web. Web. European Central Bank. 2010. Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Web. Available:  https://www.ecb.europa.eu/ecb/history/emu/html/index.en.html [27 November 2010]. Stauffer, A. n.d. What is the European Monetary Union? Web. Available:  https://uiowa.edu/ [27 November 2010]. Verdun, A. 1999. The role of the Delors Committee in the creation of EMU: An epistemic community? Journal of European Public Policy, 6(2): 308-328. Willis, A. 2010. Van Rompuy: Eurozone will bail out Greece if needed. EU Observer, 6 February 2010 .

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How Does the Executive Branch Check the Judicial Branch

How Does the Executive Branch Check the Judicial Branch SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Understanding how the United States government works is critical to succeeding on the AP United States Government and Politics exam. That includes having a solid understanding about how each piece of the federal government works together. One of the key components of this is the checks and balances system, which is where each branch of government checksor limitsthe power of the others. And unfortunately, understanding how those checks work can be a little confusing. That’s where this article comes in. Today, we’re going to investigate how the executive branch of the U.S. government checks the judicial branch. To do this, we’ll: Define the three branches of government Examine how the judicial and executive branches operate Answer the question, â€Å"How does the executive branch check the judicial branch?† So let’s get started! The Three Branches of the United States Government When the United States was founded in 1776, the federal governmentor the government that governs all the states collectivelywas split into three branches with equal power: the executive branch, the judicial branch, and the legislative branch. The idea behind splitting the government into three separate pieces was to make sure no one area of government held too much power. Remember: the United States broke away from England for many complex reasons, but a major factor was how much power the English government had over the original thirteen colonies. It’s no surprise, then, that the founding fathers were concerned about making sure that the federal government of the United States didn’t become as big and powerful as the English monarchy. Their solution was to create a three-part governing system where each branch could limit the power of the others. This is called a checks and balances system, which you can learn more about in our complete guide. For this article, though, let’s take a closer look at two of the three branches of U.S. government and see how the executive branch can check the judicial branch. The Judicial Branch: Definition and Explanation The judicial branch of the federal government is tasked with interpreting the laws, including Constitutional laws, which are created by the legislative branch. This happens through the court system, where attorneys bring cases before a judge (and sometimes jury). When a judge makes a ruling on a case, they are actually interpreting the law. That means they’re reading the laws and determining whether a defendant has actually broken them or not. In some federal cases, judges are actually evaluating the laws themselves to determine if they’re in violation of the constitution! For instance, in the famous case of Brown v. the Board of Education, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that laws requiring the racial segregation of schools were unconstitutional. The U.S. Supreme Court While the U.S. judicial system is vastthere are both state and federal courts, each with different organizational hierarchiesthey both operate under the Supreme Court of the United States (or SCOTUS). Understanding what the Supreme Court is and how it operates is key to understanding how the executive branch can check the power of the judicial branch. You may have heard of the Supreme Court referred to as â€Å"the highest court in the land.† That’s because it’s the only part of the judicial branch that’s specifically required by the Constitution, though Congress determines the number of justices that serve as part of the Supreme Court. Currently, the court has nine justices, including one Chief Justice. The Supreme Court serves as the final say on all laws in the United States, and it also rules on Constitutional issues, too. The rulings of the Supreme Court directly affect how laws are interpreted, enacted, and upheld across the United States. Some of the most famous court rulings have done things like guarantee defendants the right to an attorney, legalized same-sex marriage, and invalidated laws preventing interracial marriages. So how does someone become a Supreme Court justice? (This is actually pretty important to understanding the executive-judicial checks and balances system.) First, they have to be nominated by the President, or the executive branch of government. The nominee then has to be approved by the majority vote of the Senate, which is a part of the legislative branch of government. Once appointed, justices serve on the court for the rest of their lives or until they voluntarily retire. Federal Appellate Courts But the Supreme Court isn’t the only federal court in the United States. Since the Supreme Court only hears 100 to 150 cases a year, most federal cases are heard and adjudicatedor decidedby the federal appellate courts. When a federal case goes to trial, it is heard in a U.S. District Court. That’s where prosecutors and defendants call witnesses to the stand, provide evidence, and try to prove their cases. After both sides present their cases, a judge or a jury decides whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty. The defendant, however, has the right to appeal the U.S. District Court’s decision. When a case is appealed, it’s heard in appellate court. There are thirteen appellate courts in the United States. Each of the 12 regional circuits of the federal court system has their own appellate court. The 13th court is known as the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Unlike the other appellate courtswhich only adjudicate cases from their regional circuitsthe United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has nationwide jurisdiction. Its job is to hear appeals on topics like patent law, veterans affairs, and international trade. So what do the appellate courts do? Well, it’s the job of the appellate court is to determine the outcome of an appeal (just as their name implies). Unlike the original trial, which involves hearing testimony and examining evidence, the appellate courts don’t retry cases or hear new evidence. Instead, the case is reviewed by a panel of three judges in order to determine a) whether the defendant received a fair trial and/or b) whether the correct law was applied appropriately. If a defendant wins their appealmeaning, if the appellate court rules in the defendant’s favorthe case goes back to trial court to be heard again. If the appellate court affirms, or upholds, the trial court’s decision, however, the original verdict stands. The appellate court is an important part of the federal court system, and it helps ensure that people receive fair trials. And just like Supreme Court justices, federal judgesincluding the appellate court judgesare appointed by the President of the United States. The Executive Branch: Definition and Explanation The executive branch of the United States government is the branch that makes sure the laws of the United States are obeyed. The executive branch is split into three major groups. The first is the presidency, which we’ll talk about in more depth in just a second. The second group is the U.S. Cabinet, which is a set of advisors appointed by the President to help guide him on issues facing different sectors of the United States. The cabinet is comprised of the Vice President and the heads of the 15 major federal agencies. The third group of the executive branch are the federal agencies themselves, which help enforce laws in different legal and economic areas of the United States. For example, the Department of Labor oversees the American workforce, which includes making sure work environments adhere to federal laws (OSHA) and administering federal disability programs for people who are injured and/or no longer able to work (OWCP). But because the President is the head of the executive branch, it gives them the most power to check the judicial branch. So let’s take a quick look at the powers of the United States presidency. The Presidency The President of the United States has eight major roles within the government of the United States. They are: Chief of State: The President represents the United States to the rest of the world. Chief Executive: The President is the head of the federal government. Commander-In-Chief: The President commands every branch of the armed forces, and generals report to the President. Chief Diplomat: The President sets the United States’ foreign policy and appoints diplomats/ambassadors. Legislative Leader: While the President cannot make laws, they can ask Congress to do so and/or veto existing legislation before it’s passed. Chief Administrator: The President leads the executive branch of government, which includes more than 2.7 civilian employees. The President also appoints people to different roles, which includes appointing federal judges and nominating Supreme Court justices. Chief of Party: While this role isn’t specifically outlined in the Constitution, in modern politics, the President also serves as the head of their political party. Chief Citizen: This role isn’t specifically outlined in the Constitution either, but as Chief Citizen, American citizens expect the President to represent their interests and provide strong leadership. The role that matters most in terms of the executive branch checking the judicial branch is Chief Administrator because it gives them the power to appoint judges to long-serving positions in the justice system. How Does the Executive Branch Check the Judicial Branch? After reading the sections above, you’ve probably realized that the executive branch and judicial branch overlap...which is how the branches check each other’s power. Judicial-Executive Checks on Power Don’t worry, we’re going to get to know how the executive branch checks the judicial branch. But first, we need to take a short detour to explain how the judicial branch checks the executive branch. This will help things make more sense later. Since the judicial branch’s job is to interpret laws, they are constantly weighing in on laws signed into effect by the President (through their executive powers). Additionally, the judicial branch makes sure that the U.S. Constitution isn’t being violated. That means that members and departments of the executive branchincluding the Presidentcan be sued for violating their constitutional authority. For instance, when President Trump declared a state of national emergency to try and fund the building of a border wall, a watchdog group named Public Citizen filed a lawsuit against him. Their suit alleges that President Trump’s actions are unconstitutional, and now it’s the judicial system’s job to determine whether that’s true or not. If they rule against President Trump, it will serve as a check on his executive powers. Nick Youngson/The Blue Diamond Gallery Appointing Federal Judges It might seem as if the judicial branch has all the power over the executive branch. But that isn’t the case! One way the President checks judicial power is through his ability to appoint federal judges. Since the President is the Chief Administrator, it’s his job to appoint court of appeals judges, district court judges, and Supreme Court justices. There are more than 870 federal judgeships today, which means the President has their work cut out for them! It also gives the President quite a bit of power over how the justice system works. That’s because all federal judgeships are life terms, which means that once a judge is appointed, they serve in their position until a) they retire or b) they are impeached and removed from office due to misconduct. Once a judge leaves office, it’s the President’s job to appoint their replacement. That can really add upfor example, over the course of his presidency, former President Barack Obama appointed 334 judges, including two Supreme Court justices. Federal judges are an important part of the judicial process because they have the power of judicial review, which is the authority to interpret the Constitution. When a judge rules on a constitutional issue, their decision becomes legal precedent. Their ruling will now serve as the standard by which similar cases are judged. In fact, once a precedent is set, it’s uncommon for a court to rule against it. When Presidents appoint federal judges, they often consider both a judge’s pedigreeor their qualificationsalong with their position on key political issues. Often, Presidents appoint judges that share their ideas about how laws should work. This helps keep the judiciary in check, especially given that no party has ever held presidential power in the United States for more than 28 years (the Democratic-Republican Party held the presidency from 1801 to 1829). So how does this check judicial power? It means that Presidents can influence the political leanings of the federal court, and since judges serve a lifetime appointment, they can continue to impact the judiciary process long after a President steps down. For example, Judge George C. Young was appointed as a federal trial judge by President John F. Kennedy in 1961...and he served in office until 2015! The President nominates Supreme Court Justices. Justice Sonia Sotomayor was nominated by President Barack Obama. Nominating Supreme Court Justices The President’s ability to appoint federal judges is especially critical when it comes to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court only hears around 100 to 150 cases a year, but those cases change the ways laws are implemented across the country. For example, the Supreme Court’s ruling on Roe v. Wade in 1973 which made first- and second-trimester abortions legal in all 50 states. That ruling still stands and dictates law today, despite abortion being a hot-button political issue. Like we mentioned earlier, it’s the President’s job to nominate justices to the Supreme Court. The President often nominates judges who align with their political stances on critical issues. Because the Supreme Court is so powerful, the President’s nominations can have lasting impacts on the long-term political leanings of the Court. When the Supreme Court leans more liberal (or more conservative), it can impact how the Court rules on cases. For example, with the appointment of Justice Brett Kavanaugh in 2019, the Supreme Court now leans more conservative. The President’s power This effectively checks the judicial system by ensuring that the makeup of the Supreme Courtand its ideologyshifts from time. Every Thanksgiving, the President pardons a turkey. The President also has the power to pardon people, too. Pardon Power The last way that the executive branch checks the judicial branch is through the power of the pardon. Executive branch officials like state governors and the United States President can overturn convictions by the court. This only counts in cases where the criminal committed a crime against the state (in the case of a Governor’s pardon) or against the United States (in the case of a Presidential pardon). When a criminal is pardoned, their conviction is completely overturned and their record is expunged. That means it’s as if the crime was never committed in the first place! This allows the executive branch to check the judicial branch by ensuring that the judicial branch isn’t using its power unfairly. A good example of how the pardon power checks the judicial branch is the case of Patty Hearst. Patty Hearst was convicted and sentenced to two years in prison for robbing a bank in 1974. But Hearst was also suffering from Stockholm Syndrome. She had been kidnapped and brainwashed by a militant organization months before the bank robbery. In 2001, President Bill Clinton granted her a full pardon, which absolved Hearst from any legal wrongdoing. What's Next? Now that you know more about the executive branch, the judicial branch, and the checks and balances system, it’s time to get to know the AP U.S. Government exam. Here’s our introductory guide to the AP U.S. Government exam that will help get your test prep off on the right foot. Not sure what to study? No problem. Here’s a compilation of the best AP U.S. Government notes to get you started. The AP U.S. Government exam has a section called the free response questions, or FRQs. They’re essentially short essay responses to prompts, and for many students, they’re one of the trickiest parts of the test. That’s why we’ve broken down how to answer them and earn top marks in our FRQ guide! Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Tweet Ashley Robinson About the Author Ashley Sufflà © Robinson has a Ph.D. in 19th Century English Literature. As a content writer for PrepScholar, Ashley is passionate about giving college-bound students the in-depth information they need to get into the school of their dreams. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Get FREE EXCLUSIVE insider tips on how to ACE THE SAT/ACT. 100% Privacy. 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Sunday, February 16, 2020

Discuss O-linked oligosaccharide decoration of proteins in the Essay

Discuss O-linked oligosaccharide decoration of proteins in the production of mucus and its implications in mucus-producing adeno - Essay Example These areas in the glycoprotein are aptly called mucin-like domains. Mucin-related proteins can either be membrane-bound, in which case it is enclosing the cell, or secreted to form the extracellular matrix (Tabak, 2010). In the epithelium, such as those on the surface of gastrointestinal wall, O-glyvans attached to epithelial cell membrane-bound mucin and its related proteins, mostly Muc2, constitute what is commonly called mucus. Mucin glycoproteins are made in enormous amounts by a specialized epithelial cell called the goblet cell. Physiologically, this cell is important in producing the inner mucus layer to replace the outer mucus layer used for bacterial clearance. To produce mucus, Muc2 should first be produced and secreted. They are prepared in the Golgi apparatus, in which the proteins are labeled for transport to the surface (Johansson, 2012). They can be compactly stored in large, regulated secretory mucin granules that can be found on the apical cytoplasm of goblet cells (Perez-Vilar, 2007) 2. Importance of mucus Mucus acts as a barrier from injurious elements to which the gut surface is commonly exposed to, such as bacteria and mechanical forces. Microorganisms are trapped by the outer mucus layer for transport and excretion. ... Defect in mucus production occurs from lack of Muc2 production, Muc2 mutation, or inhibition of glucosyltransferases. Without mucus, bacteria attaches to the epithelium, increases intestinal permeability, and raises risk for colitis (Kim and Ho, 2010). Aside from the gastrointestinal systems, mucus also has a protective function in the respiratory, urogenital, ophalmologic, and auditory systems. Deregulation of its production or composition is implicated in chronic airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis (Perez-Vilar, 2007). In cystic fibrosis, the alkalization due to the defective intracellular chloride channel caused defects in pH-sensitive glucosyltransferases. The abnormal glycoproteins produced by these defective enzymes also provide receptors for Pseudomonas (Al-Awqati, Barasch, and Landry, 1992). 3. Role in cell signaling The less common O-fucose glycans are attached by O-fucosyltransderase 1 and elongated by ? 1,3N-acetylglu cosaminyltransferases to epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of Notch protein. EGF repeats are approximately 40-amino acid-long cysteine-rich motifs, including a conserved six cysteine span that forms three conserved disulfide bonds. The sugar moiety modulates protein-protein interactions and downstream signaling. Notch is a membrane-bound signaling receptor important in differentiation. Elongation of O-fucose by Fringe limits Notch activation to the dorsal and ventral boundary, since it limits the binding of Notch with its ligands. Fringe defects result to segmentation and somitogenesis defects in mice. Similar to EGF repeats, Thrombospondin tupe 1 repeats (TSR) are made up of six conserved cysteines and three